Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds (Book Summary)

Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds (Book Cover)
A must-read for any TCK

If you’re a TCK (Third Culture Kid), this book is a must read. I’m an adult TCK, and wanted to share my reading notes with anyone who hasn’t had the chance to read it yet. As far as I’m aware, this is the most comprehensive book on third culture kids: their common traits, experiences, thoughts.

Written by David C. Pollock and Ruth E. Van Reken, the book (available on Amazon) provides great insight into the unique experiences and attitudes that many TCKs share.

My notes below (all emphasis mine).

What’s the definition of a “Third Culture Kid”?

A TCK is a person who has spent a significant part of his or her developmental years (age 0 to 18) outside the parents’ culture. Consequently, his or her sense of belonging is in relationship to others of similar background.

  • High prevalence of TCKs: immigrant children, children of adoptees, children of minorities
  • “Traditional” TCK categories: foreign service kids, military brats, corporate brats, missionary kids
  • There are actually many TCKs out there. As of 2007, there were 4 million Americans living abroad (1 million UK citizens, 1 million Japanese citizens). Many of their children are TCKs by definition.
  • 2% of the US population are TCKs.
  • TCKs find a lot of use in social networks to stay in touch (with friends around the world – Facebook is a great way to stay up to date)
  • “Prototype citizens of the future”
  • Barack Obama is a TCK.

A Cross Cultural Kid (CCK) is a person who is living in/has lived in, or meaningfully interacted with, two or more cultural environments for a significant period of time during childhood (up to age 18). Note: NOT merely living side by side with another culture. TCKs are a subgroup of CCKs.

Characteristics of a TCK Upbringing

Two important realities: being raised in a genuinely cross-cultural world and being raised in a highly mobile world.

Common TCK characteristics:

  • Their physical appearance is often unique (compared to norm in “second culture” – their new home)
  • Some, perhaps most, expect to return home at one point (repatriation)
  • Often have a privileged lifestyle due to “sponsoring agency” (e.g. housing covered by parent’s corporate relocation package)
  • System identity: many choose to pursue more important, “representative” roles – TCKs really need a sense of purpose and meaning in their lives

TCKs can viewed by members of “second culture” many different ways:

ForeignerHidden Immigrant
Look different, think differentLook alike, think different
Look different, think alikeLook alike, think alike

Common occurrences among TCKs:

  • Denial of feelings of sadness or grief
  • “We’re just going to move again, what’s the point of getting attached [to person / place / thing” (form of victim mentality)
  • Loss of their “world” (which could mean any combination of possessions, lifestyle, status, relationships, role models, system identity, past life). With that, perceived loss of control over their life
  • Don’t give themselves permission to grieve, or time to process the change.

Benefits and Challenges of being a TCK:

Benefits and challenges come in pairs for the TCK:

Benefit: Expanded worldview
Challenge: Confused loyalties

Benefit: Three dimensional view of the world
Challenge: Painful awareness of reality

Benefit: Cross-cultural enrichment
Challenge: Ignorance of home culture

Benefit: Less prejudice (due to open mind and world experiences etc.)
Challenge: More prejudice (when they can’t help but feel “superior” to citizens of home culture)

Benefit: Appreciative of authority (understand benefits of a system that works)
Challenge: Mistrustful of authority (feel like people are always making decisions for them)

Another benefit: TCKs truly importance of now. They have a sense of urgency. Do it now, seize the day. New, unexpected choices can materialize at any moment – and TCKs know to act fast when it happens.

A unique challenge: linguistic skills (while TCKs may pick new languages, they often lose fluency and depth in native tongue).

Practical Skills that TCKs develop:

Cross-Cultural Skills: TCKs are tend to be naturally good as teachers, mentors, mediator. They have well honed observational skills, especially about cultural norms and expectations (due to having to adjust quickly).

Social Skills: TCKs are confident that they can quickly adjust to new environments. However, they may sometimes hold back and observe new culture passively, afraid to make dumb mistakes.

Rootlessness and Restlessness in TCKs:

The questions TCKs dread the most: Where are you from? Where is home? (Answer: everywhere and nowhere).

  • TCKs have a Migratory Instinct (rootlessness) – they constantly feel it’s time to move even when it isn’t.
  • “No place is permanent—don’t get too attached” and “just leave” (default solutions when a problem arises).
  • In response to this feeling, many swear to settle down and never move again (but ths is not easy)

Relational Patterns of Third Culture Kids:

  • Develop patterns of self-protection (against further pain of separation) that may affect relationships throughout their lives
  • Feel they can’t possibly keep up with everyone (people they know are spread out all over the world)

Relational Levels

What are relational levels?

  1. Superficial level: small talk (“what’s the weather like?”)
  2. “Still safe” level: where did you go on vacation?
  3. Judgmental level: politics, religion, etc.
  4. Emotional level: opening up about being sad, glad, worried, depressed
  5. Disclosure level: private thoughts and feelings

Many TCKs feel that Canadians are Americans are too shallow because they actively avoid discussing issues of politics or religion (whereas TCKs are happy to jump to that level fast).

TCKs jump “relational levels” with others faster than most. Why?

  • They have practice doing it
  • They have content (something relevant to say)
  • They have a sense of urgency

Misconception about relationships: a lot of people may misread TCKs in this sense. TCKs actually place a high value on relationships.

The effect of (cycles of) multiple losses on TCK relationships: they erect walls to keep out anyone who may be coming closer. Ways of dealing with this:

  • Refusing to care
  • Quick release (they make assumption that conflict means loss of relationship)
  • Emotional flattening (refusing to feel the pain) – this may appear like confidence or independence, but is often a form of detachment

Developmental Issues TCKs Face:

As humans, we have a need for strong relationships: a sense of belonging, of being nurtured and cored for, internal unity, significance, being able to make meaningful choices, feeling of knowing ourselves & being known by others. TCKs may not always know or acknowledge this.

Phenomenon: Uneven Maturity. TCKs are mature around adults, but may seem socially lacking among peers.

Early maturity in some respects:

  • TCKs quickly develop a broad base of knowledge & awareness
  • Tend to have good relationships with adults
  • Develop good communication skills
  • Early autonomy

Delayed adolescence (may feel out of sync with their peers):

  • Cross cultural mobility in developmental years leads to extended compliance
    required – pressure to conform to community standards. Translation: not as many opportunites to rebel.
  • Lack of opportunities for meaningful choices (many aspects of life decided for them)
  • Hard to make decisions due to life being unpredictable / family separations
  • Operating between different systems
  • TCK experience can severely impede normal development of sexual relationships

Characteristics of early adolescent rebellion in TCKs (when it actually happens):

  • Loneliness – start doing things like drugs, drinking (alcohol), workaholism, etc.
  • Anger – “if I’d just lived a normal life or had better parents, I wouldn’t be struggling the way I am now” or “the TCKs want to hurt those who may have hurt them”
  • “I spent my whole life doing what others want me to do. Now I’m going to start doing what I want to do”
  •  Common in “boomerang kids” – those who come back home after university

When TCKs marry:

  • 41% did not marry until age 25 (or older).
  • 60% married someone who had other international experience.
  • 80% of those who marry have kids, and teach them to be accepting, respecting and treasuring of differences.

Unresolved Grief

  • Denial: some refuse to admit the amount of sadness they have felt. Leads to grief of separation.
  • Anger: defend need for justice, environmental matters, civil rights, political freedom – with intensity. May find that many may not want to be near such an angry person.
  • Bargaining: they may begin planning how “one day” they will return to a particular location.
  • Sadness and Depression: many get stuck here for years, unable to mourn the loss or deal with it in a healthy way
  • Withdrawal: conscious or unconscious way of striking back at parents who drag them around.
  • Rebellion: whatever they know their parents will dislike, they will do—usually the protective behaviour is punished or put down.
  • Vicarious grief: transferring personal grief to that of others. As such they may become “rescuers of the community,” and may be so involved with rescuing others that they won’t rescue themselves
  • Delayed grief: when they begin to separate from children of their own. This hits hardest at 25-40, when realize that their own parents are far from perfect.

Advice for Parents of Third Culture Kids:

The transition (i.e. from home to adopted culture) will be much worse if you don’t tell the children in advance so they can say goodbye.

A TCK’s education should enable them to:

  • Maintain stable and positive self-image while learning new things
  • Acquire survival skills appropriate for their own culture
  • Identify and develop their personal creative gifts
  • Gain access to the major fields of human thought and experience
  • Become aware of the dominant worldviews/value orientations influencing their social world
  • Develop the capacity to think clearly and choose responsibly
  • Develop empathy, respect and capacity for dialogue with other persons

Cultural views of teachers/classmates may influence TCKs more than their parents expect.

Challenges when coming “home” (re-entry):

  • Unrealistic expectations of their “dream world”
  • Expectations of “sameness”
  • Reverse culture shock: everyone is driving a car (more relevant for Americans), using new slang, don’t know how to do basic tasks.
  • TCKs may realize they don’t actually like home culture and it doesn’t like them back.

Common reactions to re-entry stress:

  • Elevated fears: fears of being disloyal to the past, or fears of losing their identity
  • Excessive anger at home culture & peers
  • Sense of elitism (true or projected): sometimes they feel they are the most interesting person in the conversation
  • Depression: having a hard time getting out of bed. Often, escapism: choosing to get straight As or win every musical competition (may be a form of depression)
  • Higher chance of suicide if they feel they are not able to fit in after a year

A journey of “clarification” back to host country can be helpful later on.

Recognize the paradox TCKs are in. Typical comment: “how can they say [the experience] was hard, when their situation was so privileged?”

Observed TCK Gender differences:

  • Women (female TCKs) feel greater concern for interpersonal relationships. Establishe relationships in new places far easier than men. Experience more stress over conflicting desires for both stability & mobility.
  • Men report greater satisfaction with how lives have unfolded. Their self-esteem ties in more with external achievements than with relationships, higher rate of agreement with statements related to things over which they have control.

Common Occupational Choices of Third Culture Kids: 

  • They have a love of learning, interest in helping, and desire for independence and flexibility
  • They are helpers, problem solvers, great at mediating problems, and can usually figure out a way to handle unexpected situations
  • 25% become teachers, professors, school administrators
  • 17% professionals (e.g. doctors, lawyers)
  • 17% self-employed, 1/3rd of which are founders of their own companies (this is much higher than normal: the creative and risk taking streak is common among TCKs)
  • Almost none in large corporations or government
  • 4% in foreign service/aid or bureaus of wildlife/fisheries

Most incorporate some sort of international dimension in their occupational role (e.g. working overseas, advising foreign students, etc.)

Volunteering: 75% participate in local community (e.g. UN association, hosting foreign students, translating in courts/schools/hospitals, etc.)

TCKs succeed in jobs they have created to fit their particular talents

Adult TCK Life

Many go on to get Master’s degrees and Doctorates.

TCKs tend to continue their international involvement into adulthood.

90% say they have more awareness than others (i.e. citizens of home country), and welcome opportunities to meet new foreigners and keep informed on the places they lived in while abroad. Most would like to live abroad again and keep passports current.

Most establish relationships easily in new situations and have hobbies/interests that connect them wherever they go

Feel very different from those who have not been overseas. American TCKs: often appreciate things in the UAS that many others may take for granted, and may conclude USA is actually the best place to live (after all).

TCKs locate friends with whom they can share some of their interests, yet also resist being encapsulated.

Their camouflaged exteriors (and understated ways of presenting themselves) hide their rich inner lives and remarkable talents.

Often reach out to foreigners, exchange students and non-English speaking minorities.

They are talented at interpreting the outside world to the world in which they live – many actually do this for a living!

I hope this was helpful in understanding the unique challenges and experiences TCKs face. What do you think? Don’t be afraid to share your thoughts in the comments!

You can read other reviews and notes on the book’s Amazon listing page.

Advice For Young People Who Are Thinking Of Moving Abroad

Are you in your teens/twenties and thinking of moving to a new country one day?

As someone who has lived in five countries (and now actively looking for the sixth), I have some advice – just a few friendly suggestions from one long-term nomad to a potential future one.

  1. Finish that degree

    You may have heard about college drop-outs who became entrepreneurs, or of those who skipped post-secondary education entirely and hustled their way to success. While their stories are impressive, I strongly urge you to think twice before abandoning University.

    Let’s be clear – I’m not cheerleading for higher education here. I have my doubts about the real worth of many degrees on offer today, especially when they come packaged with tens of thousands of dollars in student loans (condolences to U.S. readers). And I won’t get into the STEM vs. non-STEM debate in this post.

    However, a (full Bachelor’s or equivalent, internationally recognized) degree is an invaluable asset when planning a life abroad. For example:

    – Thinking of teaching English abroad at one point? A degree is a must these days, even in countries where enforcement has been lax in the past (e.g. China).

    – Seeking a temporary assignment abroad with your employer? You’ll need a work visa in the host country, which will almost always require proof of higher education.

    – Looking to immigrate as a Skilled Worker? As you’ll see on many foreign immigration websites, a University degree will literally add points to your application (and can make the difference between acceptance and rejection)

    In other words, a Bachelor’s degree is useful – try to get one before you leave.

  2. Don’t try to time the job market

    I had a teacher in High School who often told us that his task is to prepare us for jobs that don’t exist yet. Turns out he wasn’t kidding.

    It’s tempting to try and predict the next big thing and “skate where the puck is going.” Now we hear predictions of powerful AI running the world, runaway climate change, genetic enhancements, oceans of nano-bots – and so on. While all of this may happen (and more), it’s not easy to pin down exactly when major changes in our society and industry will take place. Chances are, it won’t perfectly coincide with your graduation year.

    My advice is to focus on the essentials:

    Learn to write well. Cut the length of your writing by 25% – whether it’s an essay for school, an email to a coworker, or a text message. Then cut it down again (this is something I’m still working on).

    Learn to communicate effectively. Not only as an effective speaker, but as a good listener. Make it a habit to arrange your thoughts before saying anything.

    If you have the opportunity, learn a second language. It doesn’t have to be Mandarin. Even if you don’t attain a conversational level, the learning process will broaden your mind.

    Become good at problem solving. Get a strong foundation in math and the hard sciences (go online and take a free course from MIT if you have to). These subjects aren’t scary – they are beautiful when taught correctly. Learn to break down problems and solve them in steps. Try at least one course in programming.

    Take an intro course to Economics and Finance. Financial literacy is critical, yet sorely lacking today. Acquire a basic understanding of supply and demand, inflation/deflation, the capital markets, and so on.

    The idea is to prepare for anything that the world may throw at you, wherever you choose to go.

    Oh yeah, and don’t try to time the stock market, either.

  3. Spend some quality time alone

    Being alone can be a very productive activity. It’s a chance to relax, breathe, and collect your thoughts in peace. This doesn’t even have to happen regularly – a few sessions are all it takes to see the benefits. My preferred method is the long hike through the woods.

    This also happens to be great practice for long-term travel and expatriation. The first year of living abroad can be a genuinely lonely experience, especially if you are immersed in a culture that has fundamentally different values from what you’re used to. It will take time to form friendships that run deeper than surface level – if you know that you can be comfortable alone, it will be that much easier to stay the course.

  4. Solve your own problems first

    Moving to a new country won’t automatically solve all your personal issues. In fact, unless you take care of all that before departure, it’s likely to uncover new ones.

    Don’t like the attitudes and values of those around you? Chances are, you can probably find a more like-minded crowd without even leaving your city, let alone switching countries altogether.

    Frustrated with your income level? Unless you have a job lined up (and a signed work contract), moving abroad isn’t guaranteed to make you any more money than you are right now.

    Having relationship problems? Address the root cause, or you’ll likely be having similar ones in your host country, too.

    Problems with family? This is a personal situation for everyone, but I’ll wager that running far away (e.g. moving abroad) isn’t going to fix the issue, but rather delay the hard but necessary conversations that have to take place.

    Note: there will always be cases in which people are left with little choice to but leave – I’m not addressing those here.

  5. Work your way up to full expatriation

    Your move abroad can be sudden, but it doesn’t have to be unexpected. At the very least, visit your target country for a week or two before making up your mind. I recommend going there alone – get a real sample of what the first few months might feel like.

    Similarly, try a place out for a year or two before committing to seek residency (and possibly citizenship). You may find that your enthusiasm wanes significantly, and that the novelty wears off. Alternatively, you may very well confirm that the new (host) country is a far better fit. In any case, trial periods give you options.

  6. Be confident in your decision and ignore the naysayers

    Inevitably, you will run into those who will maintain that this is all “impossible.” That moving abroad, as you are trying to do, can’t be done or won’t work out. That it’s a bad plan, destined to end in tears and a negative credit card balance.

    Here’s the thing: even if all that happens, you will regret not trying it out when you have the chance. If you’ve really thought this through, made a plan, and are determined to make all of this work – go for it. You’ll figure it out.

    Living abroad, even for a brief time, will open your mind to new ways of thinking. You may even gain a deeper appreciation for your home country, and realize that there was a lot you were taking for granted.

    Good luck!

    For more advice and expat stories, check out our Recommended Books page.

Working in the USA for Canadians: a Simple Guide to the TN visa

Finally had it with Canada?

The US of A, of course, waits for you with open arms. Big portions, big salaries, and (its own flavour of) big problems await. Will you heed the call?

Of course, there are many ways to enter the States. And “open arms” is a decidedly inappropriate term for the US immigration and visa system – the reality is a complicated and intricate web of forms, fees, and requirements.

Luckily, Canadians have a trump card – the TN visa, a way for professionals to work temporarily in the United States. Originally created as part of NAFTA (free trade agreement), the TN visa is relatively easy to obtain as long as you can classify yourself as one of the non-immigrant classes (professions) listed in Appendix 1603.D.1

As someone who has successfully done this twice (entered the US on a TN work visa) and has talked to many others with similar stories, I wrote the following as a quick guide for any Canadians considering relocating south of the border.

Without further ado, the 7 steps to successfully moving to the USA on the TN NAFTA work visa:

  1. Decide that you really do want to live in the US

    Even if your plan is only to live in the USA temporarily, moving is a major life decision and should not be taken lightly. Think about what this move will mean for your relationships (e.g. with friends, family). Be honest about why you’re looking to move – if you have personal problems back home, expatriation is unlikely to make them go away.

    Financial matters present a whole new area of consideration. Take taxes, for example – depending on your personal situation, you may very well be treated as a Canadian tax resident even after departure (this topic deserves its own blog post). In short: the rest of the process is going to be easier once you have committed to the decision (and have taken the time to understand all the pros and cons).

  2. Obtain an offer of employment from a US company

    Once you have decided that a move to the States makes sense, it’s time to get a US job offer. While this is easier said than done, keep in mind that thousands have walked this path before you – US employers are already used to processing applications from Canada.

    Treat this just like any job search. Prepare a solid résumé, ensure that your LinkedIn profile is up to date, and above all: have a very clear idea of what you are looking for. Hiring managers will have to make a special case for you as a foreign applicant – make this easy for them by preparing a 10-second elevator pitch for yourself (e.g. “I’m a data scientist with a specialty in Natural Language Processing looking to join a world-class R&D team to further my skills”).

    If you don’t know where to start, I recommend networking with talent agencies specializing in your industry (e.g. management consulting) with offices in the US city you’d like to relocate to. Contact at least a couple of recruiters on LinkedIn and try to schedule a quick phone call. Be able to quickly answer the following:

    • What’s your background?
    • What is your area of expertise? Specific technical skills?
    • What are you looking to get out of your next career opportunity?

    It’s likely that before you land a job offer, you will be asked to fly down to the US for an in-person interview (after multiple phone interviews to confirm your eligibility). Don’t be daunted – take it seriously, and treat it as the valuable experience that it is.

  3. Have a conversation with your new employer about your residence status

    You won’t need to initiate this yourself – your potential US employer will already be aware that you’re applying from Canada and as such will require a work visa. There will then be a discussion (likely involving their HR department) about the best path for your specific situation – the TN visa has a high chance of coming out on top (more on this later).

    Note: if the company is unwilling to sponsor work visas, I still recommend proposing the TN visa as a solution – it’s a far easier work status to obtain than some others (e.g. the H-1B), and the actual visa cost is just $50.

    Even if you have secured a US job offer, do not quit your current job in Canada until you are absolutely sure that your new employer understands your situation and is willing to proceed with your transfer (whether as a TN status applicant or otherwise). As detailed below, this is not an instant process.

    Important: before signing any offers of employment, make sure you are satisfied with all employment terms (read all of them carefully). If you’re going to negotiate compensation and/or relocation package, now is the time to do it. At the very least, ask if the company would be willing to sponsor your relocation – the worst they can say is “no, you’re on your own [for flights and initial housing].”Tip: check for a rough idea of market salaries for your chosen position (job title), industry, and location.

  4. Apply for TN status in the United States (two methods)

    Option A:
    • Your US employer files form I-129 (Petition for a Nonimmigrant Worker) on your behalf, potentially with premium processing (faster option – USCIS will try to respond within 15 days)
    • Once US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) approves this form, your employer will notify you and forward you the approval notice.
    • You will show up to a port of entry (the CBP maintains a list of recommended processing centers for first-time Canadian TN applicants) with the I-129 approval notice, the original I-129 application (with supporting documents), and proof of your Canadian citizenship (e.g. passport) and declare that you’d like to “enter on a TN visa”
    • The CBP (Customs and Border Protection) reviews your case and makes a decision at the border regarding your application. There’s often a series of questions (out of scope for this post). If all goes well, you’re granted TN nonimmigrant status for up to 3 years. Welcome to America!

    Total cost: $325 (I-129 filing fee) + $1,225 (premium processing, if chosen)
    Time required: depends entirely on I-129 processing times (check here). Without premium processing, can easily take 2-4 months.
    Advantage: can be done far in advance of the proposed visa start date (up to 6 months)

    Option B:
    • You show up to a port of entry with proof of Canadian citizenship (e.g. passport), your original University diploma (not a photocopy), University transcript, and a letter from your employer stating your qualifications, credentials, and proposed responsibilities as part of your new. As in Option A, you simply state that you’d like to “enter on a TN visa.” This must be done within a few days of the proposed employment start date.
    • The CBP reviews your case (and all supporting documents) and makes a decision regarding your application. If all goes well, you’re asked to pay $50 (they take credit cards) and granted TN non-immigrant status for up to 3 years.

    Total cost: $50 (paid by applicant at the border)
    Time required: once the letter and supporting documents are ready, you’re good to go (typically 1 week with competent legal assistance)
    Advantage: much faster option

    Note: while some have pulled it off successfully, I do not advise writing the TN support letter yourself. In most cases, your employer will ask an immigration lawyer to draft this and brief you on the particulars.For both options A and B, you should be well rested before the day of your entry in the US – you will be asked for details about your job, academic credentials, application, etc. I always advise to give clear, concise answers – everything is being logged in the CBP system and it helps no one if you use long and flowery language.

    Think this is all a little too complicated? The TN visa is the easy one – just wait until you find out how one applies for a Green Card!

  5. Prepare for work in the United States

    Before you bust out the champagne, there are just a few more things to take care of:

    • Once you’re in the States, make sure you update USCIS with your new address in the US (you can do it online). You have to do this every time you move addresses while in America.
    • Go to your local Social Security Office and register to get a Social Security Number (SSN). Like your SIN number in Canada, this is a prerequisite to get pretty much anything done in the States
    • As soon as you can, make a photocopy of the TN stamp in your passport (scan and send to your company’s HR department to keep on file)
  6. (Optional) go through the TD process for any dependents

    If you have dependents (i.e. spouse and/or children), they may be eligible for special TD status once you have received your TN status. See the table at the bottom of the official USCIS TN page for more info.Short version: they can remain in the States for as long as you maintain your TN status, can study in the US, but can’t work.

  7. Make a decision about your continued stay in the US

    You have seen the TN referred to as a non-immigrant visa (e.g. not a “dual-intent” visa). This means that it’s designed for people working temporarily in the US – if you decide to pursue Permanent Residency status (i.e. Green Card), you will need to first obtain an immigrant visa (e.g. H-1B).

    You can technically renew the TN indefinitely, but greater scrutiny will be placed on those who are attempting to renew it a second time (6+ year stay in the US). You will be asked about your intentions to remain in the States, and why you have not yet applied for an immigrant visa yet.

While I have done my best to cover the basics here, there are many details we had to gloss over to keep the length of this post reasonable. If you’re interested in this path, you probably have some questions of your own. Feel free to get in touch and I’ll be happy to answer. Bon chance!

For general information about moving to the United States, please see our USA Immigration Guide.